The Papar Project
Project introductionDownload each chapterBibliography and creditsAgricultural assessment
OrkneyCaithnessShetlandHebrides

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‘THE PAPAR PROJECT. Inception, Parameters and Purpose’, Barbara E.Crawford (102KB) Download the Introduction in PDF
1. Purposes of the Project
2. The First phase
2.1 Place-name Evidence
2.2. Historical Evidence
2.3. Linguistic Evidence
3. Norse Attitudes and Dating Problems
3.1. Archaeological Evidence
3.2. Situation in the Hebrides
4. Geographical and other relevant material
Acknowledgements
Bibliography

Illustrations
Intro.1 Map of North Atlantic (from The ‘papar’ in the North Atlantic 2002)
Intro.2 Map of papar names in north and west Scotland (from ibid)
Intro.3 Map of papar names in Orkney and Shetland (from ibid)

A. THE NORTHERN ISLES and CAITHNESS

Contents (36KB) Download the Contents in PDF

B. THE HEBRIDES

Contents (37KB) Download the Contents in PDF

‘Introduction to the Hebrides’, Barbara E. Crawford and Ian Simpson (98KB) Download the Hebrides Introduction in PDF
- Introduction
- Geographical Distribution
- Land Assessment
- Nature of ecclesiastical establishments
- Scandinavian connection
- Requirement for supplies
- Strategic considerations
- Pagan graves and Norse place-names
- Concluding comments
- Acknowledgements

Papar place-names in the Northern and Western Isles of Scotland: a preliminary assessment of their association with agricultural land potential - Ian A. Simpson, Barbara Crawford and Beverley Ballin Smith (417KB) Download the Agricultural Assessment in PDF

Back to topREPORTS ON ‘PAPAR’ SITES IN THE NORTHERN ISLES AND CAITHNESS,
compiled by Janet Hooper; edited by Barbara E.Crawford

ORKNEY
O1. Papa Stronsay (43KB) Download Chapter O1 in PDF
· Parish history
· Ecclesiastical Sites and Archaeology
· Recent Excavations at St. Nicholas’ Chapel
· Further Archaeology

O2. Papa Westray (102KB) Download Chapter O2 in PDF
· Ecclesiastical History
· Ecclesiastical Sites

      St Boniface’s Church
      St Tredwell’s Chapel
      Other Chapel Sites

· Preliminary Evaluation of the Two Papays (ed.)

O3. Steeven o’ Papay, North Ronaldsay (56KB) Download Chapter O3 in PDF
· Ecclesiastical Sites
· Archaeology

      Broch of Burrian
· Parish History
· Ecclesiastical Structures
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

O4. Paplay, South Ronaldsay (29KB) Download Chapter O4 in PDF
· Parish History
· Chapel Locations and Dedications

      St Peter’s Kirk

O5 Paplay, Holm (33KB) Download Chapter O5 in PDF
· Parish History
      St. Nicholas’ Church
· Church Sites and Sculpture
· Preliminary Evaluation of the two Paplays (ed.)

O6 Paplay, Eday (23KB) Download Chapter O6 in PDF
· Parish History
      Lady Kirk
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

O7 Papdale, Kirkwall and St. Ola (37KB) Download Chapter O7 in PDF
· St Olaf’s Church
· Urban Development
· Ecclesiastical Development
· Later History
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

CAITHNESS
C1 Papel, Canisbay (23KB) Download Chapter C1 in PDF
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

C2 Papigoe, Broadhaven, nr. Wick (30KB) Download Chapter C2 in PDF
· St Ninian’s Chapel
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

SHETLAND
S1 Papa Stour, Sandness (44KB) Download Chapter S1 in PDF
· Ecclesiastical Sites
      Excavation at the Supposed Site of Sneeans Chapel
· Brei Holm and Maiden Stack
· Church History
· Antiquities

      Hill of Feelie Leper Colony
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

S2 Papa Little, Aithsting (24KB) Download Chapter S2 in PDF
· Parish History
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

S3 Papa, Burra (17KB) Download Chapter S3 in PDF
· Parish History

S4 Pape/Papa Geo, Aithsting (43KB) Download Chapter S4 in PDF

S5 Papil, Unst (28KB) Download Chapter S5 in PDF
· Local Ecclesiastical Structures
· Parish History
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

S6 Papil, North Yell (31KB) Download Chapter S6 in PDF
· Ecclesiastical Structures
· Parish Organisation
· Antiquities
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

S7 Papil, Fetlar (25KB) Download Chapter S7 in PDF
· Ecclesiastical Structures
· Parish History
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

S8 Papil Geo, Isle of Noss, Bressay (50KB) Download Chapter S8 in PDF
· Ecclesiastical Monuments and Structures
      Chapel at Gungstie
· Parish History
· Preliminary Evaluation

S9 Papil, Burra (28KB) Download Chapter S9 in PDF
· Church History
      St Laurence
· Sculpture
      The Papil Stone and The Shrine Panel
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

HEBRIDES
H1. Pabay/Pabaigh (Uig, Lewis) (123KB) Download Chapter H1 in PDF
· Landscape and resources
· Settlement History
· Ecclesiastical History
· Parish History
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

H2. Pabbay/Pabaigh (Harris) (183KB) Download Chapter H2 in PDF
· Historical Descriptions
· Topography and Settlement
· Ecclesiastical Monuments
· Other Archaeological Sites
· Fieldwork 2005
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

H2.Appendix Pabaigh 2005: Soil Survey and Sampling (130KB) Download Chapter H2 Appendix in PDF
· Introduction
      Pabaigh
      Methodology
· Results
      The field systems
      The chapels and graveyard
· Sampling and analysis
      Trench 1
      Pits 1 and 2
      Conclusions
· Context descriptions

H3. Pabbay/Pabaigh (Kilphedir, South Uist) (92KB) Download Chapter H3 in PDF
· Landscape and resources
· Settlement History
· Possible monastic structures
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

H4. Pabbay/Pabaigh (Kilbarr, Barra/Barraigh) (50KB) Download Chapter H4 in PDF
· Topography and Settlement
· Ecclesiastical Monuments
· Ecclesiastical History of the 'Bishop's Isles'
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

H5. Pabay (Strath, Skye) (108KB) Download Chapter H5 in PDF
· Historical Descriptions
· Ecclesiastical History
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

H6. Bayble/Pabail (Ui, Stornoway, Lewis) (125KB) Download Chapter H6 in PDF
· Topography and History
· Historical Descriptions
· Teampull Rubha Chirc - Chapel Site
· Hen Head? Chicken Head?
· Ecclesiastical Context
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

H7. Paible/Paibeil (Taransay/Tarasaigh, Harris) (178KB) Download Chapter H7 in PDF
· Topography and Settlement
· Ecclesiastical Sites and Sculpture
· Paibeil/Paible - Erosion and Archaeology
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

H8. Paible/Paibeil (Kilmuir, North Uist) (152KB) Download Chapter H8 in PDF
· Topography
· Settlement
· Place-Names and Ecclesiastical History
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

H9. Papadil (Small Isles, Rm) (129KB) Download Chapter H9 in PDF
· Historical Descriptions
· Place-names
· Papadil
· Ecclesiastical Sites and Carved Stones
· Later Ecclesiastical History
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

H10. Pabanish (Uig, Lewis) (111KB) Download Chapter H10 in PDF
· Landscape and resources
· Settlement History
· Ecclesiastical History
· Parish History
· Preliminary Evaluation (ed.)

Consolidated Bibliography (329KB) Download the Bibliography in PDF

Back to topILLUSTRATIONS

ORKNEY
O1.1. St. Nicholas Chapel, Papa Stronsay, Orkney: Location Maps (Headland Archaeology)
O1.2. St. Nicholas Chapel, Papa Stronsay: plan of the site after excavation 1998-2000 (Headland Archaeology)
O1.3. Drawing of altar slab from the floor of the nave of St. Nicholas chapel (Headland Archaeology)
O1.4. Drawing of inscribed stone from Papa Stronsay
O2.1. Map of Papa Westray (Jocelyn Rendall)
O2.2. Aerial view of St. Boniface Kirk and associated sites (Jocelyn Rendall)
O2.3. St. Boniface’s Kirk with hogback stone in foreground (Barbara E. Crawford)
O2.4. An incised compass-drawn cross from St. Boniface’s, dating to the late seventh or early eighth century (NMS)
O2.5. A square-armed cross, with small encircled cross, from St. Boniface’s (Orkney Museum)
O2.6. Aerial view of St. Tredwell’s chapel (Richard Welsby)
O3.1. Line drawing of ogham stone found at Broch of Burrian, N. Ronaldsay (Soc. Antiq. Scot.)
O4.1. Murdoch MacKenzie’s Map of Paplay, S. Ronaldsay 1750 (from Thomson, 1996)
O4.2. Paplay stone (ECMS II, 21 fig.17)
O5.1. M. MacKenzie’s Map of Paplay, Holm 1750 (from Thomson, 1996)
O7.1. Kirkwall c.1150 (based on Hossack’s map in Kirkwall in the Orkneys 1900)

CAITHNESS
C1.1 St. Drostan’s Church, Canisby (Barbara E. Crawford)
C1.2 Papigeo, near Wick (Barbara E. Crawford)

SHETLAND
S1.1. Map of Papa Stour
S1.2. View of Papa Stour from Sandness Hill (R.M.M. Crawford)
S1.3. Homefield in front of the Biggings (Barbara E. Crawford)
S1.4. Excavation at the Sneeans, July 2004, with the kirk in the background (Barbara E. Crawford)
S1.5. Map of location of Brei Holm, Papa Stour (Dept. of Archaeology, Univ. of Glasgow)
S1.6. Plan of topographic survey of Brei Holm (ibid.)
S1.7 View of the Stacks near Northouse including Maiden Stack, with Brei Holm in the foreground (Barbara E. Crawford)
S1.8. Drawing of Pictish stone from Sandness
S1.9. View of site of lepers’ huts (in foreground) on Hill of Feelie
S6.1 View of Papil Ness headland (Beverley Ballin Smith)
S8.1. View of Gungstie, Isle of Noss, with Papil Geo beyond (Barbara E. Crawford)
S8.2. Cross-marked stone from Gungstie (Barbara E. Crawford)
S9.1 Aerial view of Papil Burra. St. Lawrence's Church with its square kirkyard is in the centre of the picture (Shetland Museum)
S9.2. Drawing of Papil stone (Soc.Ant.Scot.)
S9.3. Drawing of Shrine-panel (RCAHMS)

HEBRIDES
H1.1 Map of Pabay/Pabaigh,Uig, from Haswell-Smith (2004), with kind permission
H1.2 Mackenzie's 1776 chart of Loch Roag (Map.Rol.a.3, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H1.3 View of the south end of Pabaigh Mr from Bhaltos (Cathy Dagg)
H1.4. OS First edition map (1854), showing Pabaigh Beag and the sound between the two islands (Ross-shire, Sheet XVII, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H1.5 Aerial photo of the Bhaltos and Cnip peninsula with Pabaigh Mr lying to the north-east (Sortie 60688, Frame 205,taken 29 April 1988. RCAHMS (All Scotland Survey Collection))
H1.6 OS First edition map (1854) of Pabaigh Mr (Ross-shire, Sheet XVII, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H1.7 Aerial view of the South end of Pabaigh Mr from the north; Teampuill Pheadair is visible in the foreground above the sandy beach (SC 1093045, taken 25 Sep 2004. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS)

H2.1 Map of Pabbay/Pabaigh,Harris, from Haswell-Smith (2004), with kind permission
H2.2 Distant view of Pabaigh, Harris, from above An t-Ob (Valentine Collection, JV-A7772[A] St Andrew's University Library)
H2.3 Map of the Sound of Harris, from Blaeu's Atlas, dated 1654 (WD3B/48, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H2.4 Huddart's map of Pabaigh, 1794, which appears to represent the extent of sand drift at this date (EU.6.M, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H2.5 Bald's map of Pabbay, Harris, dated 1804-5 (EMS.s.646, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H2.6 1857 Admiralty Chart, showing the southern half of Pabaigh (Chart 2642, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H2.7 Teampull Mhire and graveyard from the south (J Hooper)
H2.8 External view of south elevation of Teampull Mhire (J Hooper)
H2.9a External view of west gable (J Hooper)
H2.9b Internal view of west gable. The late medieval cross can be seen in the foreground (J Hooper)
H2.10 General view of Bailenacille. Teampull Mhire is visible at the left hand edge of the photo, behind the shepherd's house. The sharp distinction between the improved ground of the sheep farm and the dunes behind is clear; Seana Chaisteal (see below) is the prominent knoll on the skyline (J Hooper)
H2.11 The dun from the south west, with signs of cultivation extending almost to the summit of Beinn a' Chrnain in the background (J Hooper)
H2.12 Sketch profile of excavated locations at Bailenacille, showing dated contexts (Not to scale)

H3.1 Aerial view looking south-east over Loch Boisdale/Baghasdail with the two Pabaigh islands in the foreground (SC 1009336, taken 24 April 2005. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS)
H3.2 The southern part of South Uist, as depicted in Blaeu's Atlas, dated 1654 (WD3B/47, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H3.3 Bald's estate plan of South Uist, dated c. 1825 (EMS.s.582, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H3.4 Aerial view of Pabaigh, S.Uist (Sortie CPE/SCOT/UK 372, Frame 4354, taken 30 April 1948. Reproduced courtesy of RCAHMS (RAF Air Photographs))
H3.5a and b Two views of the site of the possible monastic settlement (John Raven)

H4.1 Pabbay/Pabaigh, the Barra Isles, from Haswell-Smith (2004), with kind permission
H4.2 Map of the "Southern Isles" from Blaeu's Atlas, dated 1654 (WD3B/41, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H4.3 Aerial view of Pabaigh, Barra, showing the one sandy beach, sheltered, and with the settlement location just behind (Sortie 60487, Frame 070, taken 22 May 1987 RCAHMS (All Scotland Survey Collection))
H4.4 Mackenzie's chart of Pabaigh, dated 1776 (EMS.s.654, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H4.5 Thomson's map of Pabaigh, dated 1820 (EMS.s.712(24c), courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H4.6 The graveyard mound from the south, photographed in 1895 (SC 409419 RCAHMS. Copied from 'Wanderings with a camera 1882-1898', by Erskine Beveridge)
H4.7 The graveyard mound from the south in 1992 (Pat Foster)
H4.8 The Pictish symbol stone photographed in 1895 (SC 908651 RCAHMS (Erskine Beveridge Collection)
H4.9 The Pictish symbol stone and cross-incised slabs (Fisher 2002, 106)
H4.10 Bronze pin, found on Pabaigh (Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 1900-1, 278)

H5.1 Map of Pabay, Skye, from Haswell-Smith (2004), with kind permission
H5.2 Pabay as shown on the Admiralty Chart of 1857 (Chart 2475, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland
H5.3 Mackenzie's chart of 1776 showing Pabay in relation to the sea-route through Kyleakin (Map.Rol.a.2, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H5.4 The Altar, as sketched by T. S. Muir in 1859 (Muir 1885, 38)
H5.5 Aerial view of Pabay, Skye; the chapel lies to the east of the burn which runs down to the southern shore of the island (OS/91/106, Frame 067, taken 6 July 1991. Crown Copyright: Ordnance Survey)

H6.1 Aerial view of Bayble/Pabail, extending as far west as Teampull Rubha Chirc (Sortie 60687, Frame 043, taken 27 June 1987. RCAHMS (All Scotland Survey Collection))
H6.2 OS First edition map of Pabail, 1851 (Ross-shire, Sheet XVIII, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H6.3 The Eye peninsula from the map of Lewis and Harris, contained in Blaeu's Atlas of 1654 (WD3B/48, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H6.4 Mackenzie's 1776 chart of the Eye Peninsula (Map.Rol.a.3, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H6.5 Part of Chapman's map of Lewis, originally drawn in 1807, showing the township boundaries (EMS.s.543, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H6.6 Teampull Rubha Chirc from the north-east (Carol Knott)
H6.7 Plane table survey of Teampull Rubha Chirc by Lewis and Harris Archaeology Group, 2000, with kind permission

H7.1 Map of Taransay/Tarasaigh, from Haswell-Smith (2004), with kind permission
H7.2 Aerial view of Tarasaigh from the south-east with Paibeil in the foreground (SC 1004371, taken 25 April 2005. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS)
H7.3 Mackenzie's chart of 1776, the first to depict Tarasaigh in any detail (Map.Rol.a.3, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H7.4 The graveyard at Paibeil (Ian Simpson)
H7.5 The two cross-incised stones from Tarasaigh (Fisher 2002, 113)
H7.6 Part of Bald's estate plan, dated 1804-5 (EMS.s.646, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H7.7 Aerial view of Paibeil (SC 1004373, taken 25 April 2005. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS)

H8.1 Map of North Uist from Blaeu's Atlas, dated 1654 (WD3B/47, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H8.2 Aerial view of Paibeil showing Loch Paibeil at low tide (Sortie 60487, Frame 070, taken 22 May 1987 RCAHMS (All Scotland Survey Collection))
H8.3 The area around Paibeil in Thomson's 1820 map of North Uist (EMS.s.712(24c), courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H8.4 Aerial view of Paibeil, looking south to Caolas Paibeil (SC 1093046, taken 24 April 2005. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS)
H8.5 Admiralty Chart, 1865, showing township boundaries (Chart 2805, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)

H9.1 Map of Rum, from Haswell-Smith (2004), with kind permission
H9.2 Admiralty Chart, 1852-63, showing relationship of Papadil to Harris and Dibidil (Chart 2507, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H9.3 View of south-east side of Rm, from Laig, Eigg (J Hooper)
H9.4 Langland's map of Rm, dated 1801 (EMS.s.326, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H9.5 Harris, looking south towards Papadil (J Hooper)
H9.6 Aerial view of Papadil (Sortie Meridian 48/67, Frame 035, taken 10 June 1967. RCAHMS (Meridian Airmaps))
H9.7 Papadil from the north-east. The pinnacle can be seen in the left background. In he centre, in front of the wall is the possible church site (SC 1093048, dated 1983. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS)
H9.8 Kilmory, from the south-west, with the graveyard in the foreground (J Hooper)
H9.9 Bagh na h-Uamha, from the mouth of the cave (J Hooper)

H10.1 Map of Little Bernera, from Haswell-Smith (2004), with kind permission
H10.2 Mackenzie's 1776 chart of Lewis (Map.Rol.a.3, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H10.3 Aerial view of Bernaraigh Beag (top of photograph) (Sortie 60688, Frame 121, taken 29 April 1988. RCAHMS (All Scotland Survey Collection))
H10.4 OS First edition map (1854) of Bernaraigh Beag (Ross-shire, Sheet XVII, courtesy of The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland)
H10.5 Aerial view of Teampull Bernaraigh Beag and Pabanish from the south-east. The graveyard lies to the left of the beach in the centre of the photograph (SC 1093049, taken 25 Sep 2005. Crown Copyright: RCAHMS)

AGRICULTURAL LAND ASSESSMENT
Figure 1: The Papar islands, and related place names.
Figure 2: Teampull Mhoire, Pabbay, Sound of Harris.
Figure 3: Teampull Mhoire, Pabbay, Sound of Harris.
Figure 4: St. Keith's Chapel, Taransay.

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Copyright Papar Project 2005 Email the Project Team